The best performing teams recruited fewer footballers than the less competitive ones, according to the CIES Football Observatory, a research group within the International Centre for Sports Studies (CIES).
Among the eleven least active clubs on the transfer market are seven teams competing in the UEFA Champions League: Bayern Munich, Real Madrid, Lyon, Leverkusen, Paris St-Germain, Tottenham and Atlético Madrid. Athletic Bilbao, Hertha Berlin, Manchester United and Real Sociedad also are in the top eleven positions of the rankings.
The 18th edition of the CIES Football Observatory Monthly Report presents an in-depth analysis of the recruitment policies followed by clubs from the five major European championships. The study notably highlights that the most competitive teams focus on the fee paying transfer of young players with high potential and hold on to those who perform best over the long term.
German champions Bayern Munich only signed two players. Read full report here.